Acerola Extract

Acerola, or Barbados cherry (Latin: Malpighia glabra), is a small fruit that is one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C and rutosides. One acerola fruit weighing 4.5 g has as much vitamin C as a kilogram of lemons. One small glass (180 ml) of acerola juice may contain as much vitamin C as 14 liters of orange juice. In addition, the fruit contains a significant amount of provitamin A as well as thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin PP), calcium, phosphorus and iron. Vitamin C obtained from acerola fruit is in a complex with bioflavonoids (rutin and hesperidin). In such a complex, it is more stable and is gradually released from this complex, which improves its biological use by the body.

In addition, rutoside - also known as rutin or vitamin P, is one of the most common quercetin glycosides. Its sugar part is composed of the disaccharide rutinose (glucose + rhamnose).

In accordance with permitted health claims it should be stated that:

  • Rutin has a positive effect on the function of blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries), supports their health and elasticity and normalizes permeability through the blood vessel wall.
  • Rutin has strong antioxidant properties and protects the body's cells against the harmful effects of free radicals.
  • Rutin improves the functioning of the immune system.

Przepisy zabraniają nam opisać wszystkie właściwości rutyny (rutozydów) przy przedstawianiu preparatu, który jest suplementem diety. Dlatego podajemy odnośniki, gdzie osoby bardziej zainteresowane mogą z miarodajnych źródeł więcej dowiedzieć o działaniu i właściwościach rutyny. → Portal Farmaceutyczno Medyczny

Spożycie pokarmów zawierających rutozydy (rutynę) może być korzystnie dla naczyń krwionośnych. Nie bez znaczenia są również jego właściwości antyoksydacyjne (wymiatacz wolnych rodników). Więcej na temat działania rutyny można również przeczytać →

Hesperydyna - jest to glikozyd (7-rutozyd) flawanonu zwanego hesperetyną. Hesperydyna zaliczana jest do tak zwanych czynników kapilarnych P. Ich działanie biologiczne związane jest przede wszystkim z naczyniami włosowatymi.

Vitamin C is probably the best and most widely known vitamin. It performs many functions in the body, including: strengthens the immune system, prevents fatigue and overwork. Tutaj możesz więcej przeczytać → New Developments and Novel Therapeutic Perspectives for Vitamin C (pdf file) and → "O witaminie C obiektywnie" (plik pdf)


Foods rich in rutin

Most vegetables and fruits contain some amount of bio-flavonoids, and the most common ones include rutin, apigenin, quercetin, and hesperidin. They are especially common in flowering plants. They most often occur as yellow pigments dissolved in the cell sap of flowers and leaves. They are less common in fruits and rarely in seeds.

Cereals and grains rich in rutin and/or heperidin

Ancient grains tend to be les processed than modern grains, like corn and wheat. Because of this, ancient grains have more vitamin, mineral, and fiber content. Including ancient grains in your diet may come with health benefits.

Ancient grains are a group of grains and pseudocereals (seeds that are consumed like grains) that have remained mostly unchanged for thousands of years.

They’re dietary staples in many parts of the world, such as China, India, Africa, and the Middle East. Today, ancient grains are becoming more popular in Western countries.

That’s because they tend to be less processed and pack more vitamins, minerals, and fiber than more widespread grains like corn, rice, and modern wheat. The ancient grains are an exceptionally rich source of rutin.

In addition, studies have linked ancient grain consumption to health benefits, such as lower heart disease risk, better blood sugar control, and improved digestion.


Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) or common buckwheat is a particularly rich source of flavonoids, it has anti-atherosclerosis properties and strengthens the veins. And finally, routine! The representative of flavonoids found in the largest amount in buckwheat is rutin.


Species belonging to the genus Amaranthus have been cultivated for their grains for 8,000 years. Amaranth plants are classified as pseudocereals that are grown for their edible starchy seeds, but they are not in the same botanical family as true cereals, such as wheat and rice. The yield of grain amaranth is comparable to that of rice or maize.

Amaranth slowly releases sugars into the blood, which means that there is no such "panic" desire to eat. Amaranth is an excellent source of magnesium, iron and folic acid! Contains 5 times more iron than spinach or wheat. Does not contain gluten. It contains B vitamins and antioxidants - vitamins A, C and E. Due to the high fiber content, it has a positive effect on intestinal function. Amaranth seeds contain large amounts of squalene, which is a compound that inhibits cell aging.


Otherwise, Peruvian rice is also a very old grain. It comes from South America, where it has been cultivated for 3-5 thousand years. It was a staple food in the Inca state. She was called there the "mother of cereals". Quinoa is a source of high-quality protein, healthy fatty acids, many vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, vitamin A and E) and minerals (calcium, iron, a lot of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, zinc). Quinoa seeds contain an exceptionally large amount of flavonoids, which means that they have antioxidant properties. Quinoa protein is one of the few plant proteins that contains all exogenous amino acids, i.e. those that are not synthesized in the body and must be supplied with food. It is worth including it in the diet of vegetarians and vegans. In addition, quinoa is a source of fiber, which lowers blood glucose levels. Therefore, it can be consumed by people struggling with diabetes. Quinoa does not contain gluten and is easily digestible. You could say it's cosmic groats! NASA is conducting research on it to determine its usefulness during long-duration crewed flights.

Kasza gryczana

Amarantus ziarno

Komosa ryżowa

Fruits rich in rutin

Najwięcej bioflawonoidów i wśród nich rutyny, jest zawarta w skórce i tuż pod jej powierzchnią. Dlatego aby dostarczyć organizmowi rutynę, to owoce należy spożywać ze skórką.

  • Jabłka ze skórką
  • Ciemne winogrona
  • Owoc dzikiej róży
  • Czarna porzeczka
  • Cytrusy (cytryny, pomarańcze)


Vegetables rich in rutin

The main sources of flavonoids in the Polish diet are vegetables: onion, tomatoes, peppers and broccoli. Below we list vegetables with a high content of bioflavonoids, including rutin. It is also worth noting that both dark blue and dark green fruits and vegetables also provide anthocyanins and lutein - other than rutin, but also valuable bioflavonoids with a beneficial effect on the retina.

  • Asparagus
  • Onion
  • Bell pepper red and green
  • Tomatos
  • Zucchini
  • Broccoli

Herbs rich in rutin

Researchers (Kazimierczak et al) have demonstrated the presence of rutin in herbs - mint from organic cultivation, lovage, thyme and sage from both organic and conventional cultivation. Of the tested herbs, the most rutin contained organic mint and conventionally grown thyme. Interestingly, no rutin was detected in mint from conventional cultivation or in lemon balm from organic cultivation, while very small amounts of rutin were detected in lemon balm from conventional cultivation. It is also worth mentioning that, apart from rutoside, herbs were also rich in many other antioxidants, which is why dietitians recommend their use in meals.

  • Common rue (Ruta graveolens)
  • St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum)
  • Elderberry flower (Sambucus)
  • Thyme
  • Sage (Salvia officinals)
  • Mint (Menthe piperate)
  • Marjoram (Origanum majorana)


Kazimierczak R, Hallmann E, Kazimierczyk M, Rembiałkowska E: Antioxidants content in chosen spice plants from organic and conventional cultivation; Journal of Research and Applications in Agricultural Engineering; 2010, Vol. 55(3).

Park BJ, Park JI, Chang KJ, Park CH.: Comparison in rutin content in seed and plant of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum). Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004: 626-629.

Samaszko-Fiertek J, Roguszczak P, Dmochowska B, Ślusarz R, Madaj J: Rutyna – budowa, właściwości; Wiadomości Chemiczne, 2016, 70, 7-8.


Content of bioflavonoids in selected plants
Roślina/warzywo Całkowite
Kwercetyna Katechina Kemferol Apigenia Rutyna
Zielona papryka
Czerwona papryka
Czerwony szpinak
Biała rzodkiew
Trawa cytrynowa


Wszystkie wyniki są średnia trzech pomiarów ± odchylenie standardowe. Wyniki wyrażone mg/g suchej masy. ND: non detected.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C – An Essential Nutrient

An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal physiological function that cannot be synthesized by the body, and thus must be obtained from a dietary source.

Vitamin C was discovered (isolated from lemon juice), tested and synthesized by the Hungarian scientist Albert Szent-Györy in 1928. For this discovery, as well as for his overall research on vitamin C, he received the Nobel Prize in 1937.

Vitamin C performs extremely important functions in the body, primarily supporting the proper functioning of the immune system and antioxidant properties, and protecting DNA, proteins and fats against oxidation. It is necessary for the proper course of phagocytosis processes. A high level of vitamin C in the body promotes the creation of maximum glycogen resources in the liver and strengthens its detoxifying activities.

  • Promotes healthy glowing skin and collagen formation
  • Improves mineral absorption
  • It is important for growth and repair of bones, teeth, skin and other tissues
  • Fights free radical damage
  • Boosts immunity fighting colds and flu
  • Improves health of gums and teeth
  • Vital for circulation and heart health

How much vitamin C does our body need?

Tables and lists of vitamin C requirements established by medical authorities vary between countries. This is partly due to climatic differences, differences in diet and the structure of food intake. Below is a table of recommended daily intake of vitamin C developed by the Food and Drug Administration in the USA. In the UK the recommended intake values ​​for vitamin C have recently been increased, but they are still slightly lower than, for example, in the USA.

Age, gender Recommended daily intake
Newborn up to 6 months 40mg
Infant from 7 to 12 months 50 mg
Children from 1 to 3 years of age 15 mg
Children from 4 to 8 years of age 25 mg
Children from 9 to 13 years of age 45 mg
Teenagers between 14 and 18 years (boys) 75 mg
Teenagers between 14 and 18 years (girls) 65 mg
Adults (men) 90mg
Adults (women) 75 mg
Pregnant women 85 mg
Breastfeeding women
120 mg


What influences our need for vitamin C?

The body's need for vitamin C is the subject of many studies. It varies in individual countries and ranges from 30 to 100 mg/day. This is primarily related to the variable consumption of fresh vegetables and fruit. The table above shows the increased demand during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Intense physical exercise increases the demand for vitamin C, so athletes and people who work hard physically may need additional amounts of this vitamin.

The daily requirement increases in people with hypertension, smokers, alcoholics, diabetics, people who are stressed and lead an unhealthy lifestyle. The requirement of smokers is 40 mg higher than that of non-smokers.

Residents of large agglomerations need more of this vitamin because it is destroyed by pollutants and toxins present in the environment. Taking certain medications may also increase the need, and acetylsalicylic acid inhibits its absorption.

Signs and symptoms of vitamin C deficiency

10 Warning Signs You Are Vitamin C Deficient Concerned you might be vitamin C deficient? Here are some signs you should be watching out for:

1. Easy Bruising

Bruising, caused when small blood vessels near the skin’s surface (known as capillaries) break and leak red blood cells, is a natural and normal response to certain injuries like a fall or a knock.

While a certain amount of bruising is to be expected, excessive or unexplained reddish-purple marks on the skin may point to a shortage of vitamin C in the diet due to weakened capillaries.

The University of Michigan Health System states that even minor deficiencies of vitamin C can lead to increased bruising. They recommend that people who bruise easily should try to increase their intake of vitamin C to see if that has an effect, as consuming more vitamin C has been found to reduce bruising in those who aren’t already getting enough.

2. Slow Wound Healing

If you notice your cuts and scrapes are slow to heal, have a closer look at your diet. As vitamin C is essential to the formation of collagen in the skin – a new connective tissue that binds a healing wound, a lack will lead to slow healing.

This link has been given recognition in medical literature since 1937 when Harvard Medical School surgeons noticed that the spontaneous breakdown of surgical wounds occurred in patients with low levels of vitamin C.

Along with playing a role in collagen formation in healing wounds, vitamin C acts as a powerful antioxidant and immune system booster – both of which encourage faster healing.

3. Swollen, Bleeding or Inflamed Gums

Oral health problems, like swollen or bleeding gums or recurrent mouth ulcers, are often linked to suboptimal levels of vitamin C.

Again, collagen is important as it supports the gums. It’s estimated that gums turn over at least 20% of their collagen every day, meaning regular hits of vitamin C are vital for good teeth and gums. Low levels of the vitamin are linked with an increased risk of gum disease which can range from simple gum inflammation to major soft tissue damage! If not addressed, low vitamin C intake can progress and eventually lead to scurvy, a disease characterized by bleeding, oozing gums and the loss of teeth.

4. Dry or Splitting Hair and Nails

A shiny head of hair and strong nails can often be a good indicator of a balanced diet. Likewise, a lackluster mane that is dry and splitting may highlight a problem. Because hair is a non-essential tissue, nutrients such as vitamin C are sent to more important organs and tissues first, before making their way to the hair. So if you have less than ideal levels of the vitamin, you may find your hair is suffering. Furthermore, vitamin C is vital for the absorption of iron – a deficiency of which can cause chronic hair loss and slow hair growth, along with brittle and concave nails.

5. Red, Rough or Dry Skin

One of the first signs of scurvy is rough and dry skin caused by a lack of collagen. Low levels of vitamin C are also linked to the common but harmless skin problem keratosis pilaris – characterized by the presence of small, hard bumps on the upper arms, thighs, buttocks and face.

The good news is that simply upping your intake of vitamin C rich foods can greatly improve skin tone and texture.

Studies show that diets high in vitamin C are associated with better skin appearance and less wrinkling. Other research demonstrates that vitamin C can offset some of the damage caused by the sun’s UV rays, thanks to antioxidant activity; and may inhibit water loss from the skin, preventing dry skin.

6. Frequent Nosebleeds

Over 90% of nosebleeds come from capillaries in the front of the nose. Because adequate vitamin C intake decreases the fragility of these small blood vessels, a lack of it may cause regular nosebleeds.

If you’re experiencing these frequently, or at least more often than usual, don’t dismiss an inadequate diet as the underlying cause.

If your deficiency progresses to scurvy, you can expect easily provoked bleeding from the nose and gums.

7. Poor Immune Function

The immune system, our body’s protection against infection and disease, is strongly influenced by the intake of nutrients, particularly vitamin C.

Several cells in our immune system need the vitamin to perform their tasks so naturally a deficiency leads to a reduced resistance against certain pathogens. Getting enough vitamin C means that our immune system will be in tip-top shape to reduce the risk, severity and duration of certain infectious diseases.

Despite popular opinion though, vitamin C may not ward off the common cold. While some studies say vitamin C may slightly reduce the duration of the illness (but not affect its incidence or severity), others show contradictory results.

Nevertheless, getting enough vitamin C is important for overall health, especially if you are under physical strain or already have insufficient intake of the vitamin.

8. Swollen and Painful Joints

Pain and swelling of the joints caused by inflammatory arthritis may be another sign you need to overhaul your diet.

A 2004 study, conducted in Great Britain, found that people who had low levels of vitamin C were three times more likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis than those whose diets included foods rich in the vitamin.

9. Fatigue or Depression

Fatigue and low mood are symptoms of so many illnesses, so it can be hard to identify a specific condition based on exhaustion alone. But when coupled with other symptoms, it may help to identify a lack of vitamin C.

There is a well-known link between vitamin C deficiency and psychological state, say researchers. What’s more, studies of hospitalized patients (who often have suboptimal vitamin C levels) demonstrate a perceived improvement in mood after vitamin C supplementation – by up to 34%!

10. Unexplained Weight Gain

Too little vitamin C in the bloodstream leads to an increase in body fat and waist circumference.

In 2006, Arizona State University researchers found that the amount of vitamin C we absorb directly affects our body’s ability to use fat as a fuel source during both exercise and when at rest.

During the four week study, 20 obese men and women were put on a low-fat diet which contained 67% of the recommended daily allowance of vitamin C. They were also randomly given either a 500 mg vitamin C capsule daily, or a placebo.

At the beginning of the trial, those with the lowest concentrations of vitamin C in their blood had the highest body fat mass. As a steady amount of vitamin C was consumed throughout the study, blood vitamin C concentrations increased 30% in those taking vitamins and fell by 27% in the control group. As blood concentrations fell, so did the participants’ ability to oxidize fat – by 11%!

The bottom line is, if you’re looking to lose weight, make sure you’re eating your fruits and vegetables.

The best sources of vitamin C in food

Fruits with record levels of vitamin C are not usually eaten directly, but are used industrially as a natural source of vitamin C. These include (1) the Amazonian camu camu berry, (2) the acerola fruit (Barbados cherry), (3) the dogwood fruit, (4) amalaki (Indian gooseberry), (5) açai berries.

Below we present in the table various fruits and vegetables in terms of their value as a source of vitamin C. This list was prepared based on the website's data The World's Healthiest Food.


DRI = Dietary Reference Intake = referencyjna wartość spożycia - Referencyjna wartość spożycia, zwana w skrócie RWS jest bardzo pomocnym parametrem ułatwiającym układanie codziennego jadłospisu. RWS jest także pomocne producentom żywności, dzięki temu mogą dostarczyć konsumentowi więcej informacji żywieniowych. W Unii Europejskiej opracowywaniem i publikowaniem referencyjnych wartości spożycia zajmuje się EFSA, czyli Europejski Urząd ds. Bezpieczeństwa Żywności.

DV = Daily Values = wskazane dzienne spożycie - Wskazane dzienne spożycie zostało obliczone dla przeciętnej zdrowej dorosłej osoby o prawidłowej masie ciała i normalnym poziomie aktywności fizycznej.

Nutrient density = gęstość odżywcza - to wartość odżywcza produktu w odniesieniu do jego kaloryczności. Im więcej produkt zawiera niezbędnych składników w jednostce energii, tym większa jest jego gęstość odżywcza. Im wyższy wskaźnik gęstości odżywczej, tym posiłek dostarcza większej ilości witamin i minerałów.

Cooking, storing and processing food has a very significant impact on the vitamin content of our food.

Smoking destroys vitamin C

Cigarette smoking destroys ascorbinic acid. With each cigarette, we lose about 25 mg of vitamin C. Carbon monoxide, present in the air polluted with cigarette smoke, is equally harmful. People who smoke cigarettes and live in large cities should therefore use vitamin C in larger doses.

It is worth noting that smoking tobacco also destroys other "antioxidant" vitamins A and E.

Could vitamin C be dangerous?

Rarely has any vitamin aroused and continues to arouse as much controversy as vitamin C. Some people, like Pauling, take it in handfuls, others hardly take it at all. The famous chemist, Nobel Prize winner, Linus Pauling, himself took and recommended taking up to 2 g of vitamin C a day. However, many biochemists, doctors and dieticians consider such behavior to be inappropriate because it makes the body lazy and, in a sense, relieves it of the function of absorbing vitamin C from food.

Taking vitamin C is basically safe. Vitamin C belongs to the so-called GRAS (generally recognized as safe) products.

The National Academy of Sciences has established a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of 2000 mg per day for adults. While it is plausible that in rare situations — particularly with a rich intake of citrus juices — an individual could be above this UL from foods alone, we are not aware of any evidence to suggest that vitamin C intake from foods ever is responsible for toxicity symptoms.

Vitamin C administered intravenously has diuretic properties, so you should ensure proper hydration of the body. Due to the possibility of hypoglycemia, it is worth eating a small meal just before the infusion, or even during the drip.

If you would like to contact us:

Phytomedica Polska
  ul. Farbiarska 22, 02-862 Warszawa
  (+48) 22 487 14 44
  (+48) 22 651 75 60

Contact Form

If you have not found the answer you are looking for, please fill in this contact form and send it to our expert!

By ticking this checkbox I hereby agree for processing of my personal data contained in this contact form and to receive an answer to my inquiry by electronic mail by the Administrator i.e. Phytomedica Poland, 22 Farbiarska Str., 02-862 Warsaw, Poland.

Enter the code shown in the picture
This is a captcha-picture. It is used to prevent mass-access by robots. (see:

Before submitting the form, make sure that the e-mail address you entered is correct!